ASTM Testing Standards
ASTM D412 covers the test methods for measuring the tensile properties of cured rubber and TPEs. Using a tensometer, the stress response to an applied strain can be calculated. From this, the ultimate elongation and tensile strength, as well as other tensile properties, can be found.
ASTM D413 specifies a method for determining the adhesion strength between rubber and plies of fabric or other material. It is applicable to rubber used in belting, hose, tire carcasses, or rubber-covered sheet metal.
ASTM D429 describes methods for measuring rubber adhesion to substrates. Typically, static adhesion strength of rubber to metal is measured by a tensile testing machine.
ASTM D575 describes a method for measuring the compression-depression properties of rubber compounds. The deflection and force are typically reported.
ASTM D624 covers the test methods for measuring the tear strength of cured rubber and TPEs. This is done by purposely cutting or nicking the sample and then measuring the force necessary to break the sample.
ASTM D790 covers test methods for the measurement of flexural properties of plastics. The flexural strength can only be measured in samples that break or fail.
ASTM D885 describes various test methods for tire cords, tire cord fabrics, and industrial filament yarns made of manufactured organic-base fibers. The standard covers the measurement of numerous properties associated with these items.
ASTM D1414 covers the methods for determining the physical properties of O-rings. These properties include compression set, tensile, and aged properties.
ASTM D1415 is a standard test method for determining the hardness (in International Rubber Hardness Degrees) of cured rubber and TPEs. The hardness value is found by measuring the penetration depth of a rigid ball into the sample under specified conditions.
ASTM D1646 covers the test methods for measuring Mooney Viscosity, Mooney Stress Relaxation, and Mooney Scorch. Mooney Viscosity and Stress Relaxation are typically run on the polymer giving some insight into the polymer viscosity and elasticity. Mooney Scorch is run on the compounded rubber providing information on the initial rate of cure and the amount of scorch safety time.
ASTM D2084 describes the test method for the ODR. Using the ODR, one can measure the cure characteristics of the rubber compound including ML, MH, scorch times, and cure times.
ASTM D2240 is a standard test method for determining the indentation hardness of cured rubber, TPEs, and other materials using a durometer. The hardness value is found by measuring the penetration depth of an indenter into the sample under specified conditions.
ASTM D3346 describes a Mooney test specifically designed for measuring the processability of emulsion SBR. The procedure follows the Mooney Viscosity test method found in ASTM D1646 Part A.
ASTM D4440 describes a method for measuring the dynamic viscosity for a polymer melt with the ESR. The changes in modulus and tangent delta can be observed with changes in oscillation frequency, strain and temperature.
ASTM D4473 describes a method for measuring the cure behavior of a thermosetting resin sample with the ESR. The ESR uses a constant forced oscillation amplitude at a fixed frequency to measure the changes in dynamic properties of thermosets with cure. These measurements can be done under isothermal or non-isothermal test conditions. The changes in modulus and tangent delta can be observed during a given time-temperature profile. In addition, the glass transition temperature Tg can often be determined after cure.
ASTM D4482 describes the test method for the Fatigue to Failure Tester. Samples undergo tensile strain cycles until failure occurs. The fatigue life of the specimen is measured.
ASTM D5099 is a standard test method for the measurement of flow properties of TPEs and rubber in a capillary rheometer. The test will provide viscosity data at multiple shear rates.
ASTM D5289 covers the test method for measuring cure characteristics with RPA and MDR type instruments. The data points reported are typically ML, MH, scorch times, and cure times.
ASTM D6048 covers various ways to measure the stress relaxation characteristics of rubber and TPEs. Techniques covered include shear stress relaxation after sudden step strain and shear stress relaxation after cessation of steady shear flow which can be run on RPA and Mooney rheometers respectively.
ASTM D6204 describes a test method for determining the rheological properties of raw rubber and uncured rubber compounds. Using the RPA, the viscosity and tangent delta can be measured which relate to the processing characteristics of the rubber. Additionally the cure properties of rubber compounds can be found using Part C of this method.
ASTM D6601 describes a test method for measuring the cure and after cure viscoelastic properties of rubber compounds using the RPA. During cure, the ML, MH, scorch times, and cure times are determined. After cure, the temperature is reduced and the modulus and tangent delta are recorded at various strains.
ASTM D7050 describes how to sort natural rubber bales based on differences in viscoelastic properties which relate to processability. It uses uncured elastic modulus to separate "soft" and "hard" natural rubber.
ASTM D7605 is a standard test method for determining the rheological properties of TPEs. The modulus, viscosity, and tangent delta are measured at various strains, frequencies, and temperatures.
ASTM D7723 covers the test method for measuring the filler dispersion in a rubber compound with an optical microscope. Using the disperGRADER α-view, the dispersion percentage, as well as other dispersion metrics, can be calculated.
ASTM D7750 describes a method for measuring the cure behavior of a thermosetting resin sample (i.e. composites) with the ESR. The changes in modulus and tangent delta can be observed for a given time-temperature profile.
ASTM D8059 is used to measure the viscoelastic properties from the strain softening effect known as the Payne Effect. The Payne Effect is a phenomenon in the low amplitude dynamic testing of strain dependent filled rubbers where the modulus decreases as the amplitude of deformation is increased. It is often used to determine the level of dispersion of a filled rubber compound.
ISO 527 describes the procedure for measuring the tensile properties of plastics and plastic composites. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and other tensile properties are reported.
ISO 2781 covers methods for measuring the density of cured rubber and TPEs. These measurements are important as formulations are typically derived on a mass basis but parts are designed on a volume basis.
ISO 7743 covers a method for the measurement of compressive stress-strain properties of vulcanized or thermoplastic rubber. There are different methods for testing a standard test piece or a product.
ISO 11339 is a standard test method for the determination of the peel strength of an adhesive. The peeling force of a T-shaped bonded assembly of two flexible adherents is measured.
ISO 11345 is the ISO standard for the disperGRADER α-view. It covers the measurement of filler dispersion in rubber compounds. Numerical scales from 1 to 10 are used to grade the dispersion of the compound.
ISO 13934 specifies a method for the determination of the maximum force and elongation at maximum force of textile fabrics using a strip method.